Top left corner of screen: Tap the ⓘ, which will cause a control panel to slide out with How To Play and Tell A Friend options. Tap to select.
How To Play
ⓘ→How To Play: Tap to display a Quick Start overlay with labels explaining each feature.
Upper right corner of Quick Start screen: Tap Online Help to open the iPhone help page of the Bandojo website, as described below. Tap About to learn about the particular version of Bandojo you’re running.
ⓘ→How To Play→Online Help: Tap to open online help at the Bandojo website. (If your device is not connected to the Internet, nothing will be displayed.) To open the Frequently Asked Questions page for additional help, tap Support in the menu bar to open a dropdown menu, then tap on FAQ. To access Bandojo’s online help outside of Bandojo, go to https://www.bandojo.us/ios/iphone.
Tell A Friend
ⓘ→Tell A Friend: Tap the Message or Mail icon to let your friends know about Bandojo.
Upper right corner of screen: Tap the Volume icon to cause a control panel to slide out. It offers separate sliders that balance the Accompaniment and Melody volumes, and a Master control for the combined volume. Tap the Melody Palette buttons on the right to hear the new volume on your selected Melody Palette instrument.
Note: The buttons on the outside of your iPhone compose a separate volume control that will not be affected by settings within Bandojo.
Left side of screen: Tap on the Accompaniments List icon (notes on a wavy musical staff) to slide out a menu of available accompaniments, then tap on your selection. If no accompaniment is playing, tap Start to restart playing of the current selection or tap a new menu selection to begin playing it. If an accompaniment is already playing, stop it by tapping either Stop or the current menu selection. Whenever a playing accompaniment is either stopped or changed to a new selection, the current measure will finish before the change occurs. Scroll for additional accompaniments. To load a different set of Accompaniments, go to Options→Accompaniments, tap the arrow to open a menu showing the Accompaniment Files (sets of musical textures) available on this device, then tap your selection followed by Apply.
Accompaniments Menu: Tap Start or Stop to play or halt the selected accompaniment. When you tap Stop, the accompaniment will complete the current measure before ceasing to play.
Accompaniment Progress Indicator
Top center of screen: The Accompaniment Progress Indicator is visible only when the accompaniment plays. It consists of two parts. The first is a small dot that moves across the screen from left to right; it indicates how far the current accompaniment has progressed through a cycle. To its left is a series of three numbers separated by colons in the form Cycle:Measure:Beat. The first number indicates how many cycles have been played of the current accompaniment, including the cycle in progress. When the dot returns to the left, the cycle number increases (if Auto Change Accompaniment is on) and, if Auto Change Tonic is on, the tonic changes. The second number indicates which measure of the accompaniment cycle is currently playing, while the third number indicates the beat within the current measure. The Measure and Beat values change synchronously with the blinking of the dots near the center of the Melody Palette, which compose the Measure Indicator and Rhythm Beat Indicator.
Center of screen: To play melodies, sweep one or more fingers across the Melody Palette or tap it with one, two, five or more fingers.
To explore the layout of Bandojo’s 2-D musical keyboard, called a Melody Palette, tap buttons within a row from left to right to play the consecutive notes of a scale. Start on a red button (“Do” or “1”) to lead with the current tonic. The scale will automatically match that of the current accompaniment, even if it is not playing. Western scales (sometimes called modes) include Major, Minor, Dorian, Phrygian, Lydian, and Mixolydian. There are also a few examples of non-Western scales, such as Melakarta Marva (India) and Byzantine hard chromatic (Greece), and of non-heptatonic scales, such as the pentatonic Ryo-sen (Japan). The current scale type is displayed on the Tonic Controller.
Most accompaniment names reference the scale; a few do not. For example:
|Sneaky Marva||Melakarta Marva|
Either three or four octaves are available (depending on Pitch Map selection), arranged with lowest pitch at the bottom left and highest at the top right. Along L-jumping diagonals running upward from right to left, you may find two, three, or four identically colored (and labeled) buttons. These play notes that sound the same. The next diagonal up of that color plays one octave higher.
Button color indicates scale note. For instance, red is always the first note of the scale (known as the tonic or key). Go to Options→Scales & Tuning, and set Solfege Display to Full to see the mapping of buttons to scale notes, scale degree numbers, or pitch names. This will also cause some number of dots to be drawn above or below each button’s label, indicating that button’s octave register, and making it easy to tell whether buttons of the same color play the same or different (octave-separated) pitches.
See Tonic Controller, Melody Range and Pitch Map in this help file for additional information on using the Melody Palette to play melodies, which is its default Harmony mapping mode.
Note, however, that the Melody Palette can alternatively be set to mapping modes in which tapping the buttons changes the accompaniment’s chord root, either exclusively or in addition to playing melody notes. Go to Options→Scales & Tuning to set the Harmony mapping mode, as described in the help section on Mapping Mode of Melody Palette.
Rhythm is defined by many layers of cycles. One such layer is the measure, which is defined by a cycle of n beats.
Each Bandojo accompaniment has a time signature or meter, which describes its rhythm structure at the level of the measure. The measure is subdivided into beats. Each beat is further subdivided into some number of pulses, where the duration of each pulse is the same. For this discussion, think of a pulse as being an eighth note.
In many time signatures, each beat has the same number of pulses. For example, in the 6/8 time signature, there are two beats per measure and each beat is divided into three pulses. That is, each beat is a dotted quarter note whose duration is 3 eighth notes. In the 3/4 time signature, on the other hand, there are three beats per measure and each beat is divided into two pulses. That is, each beat is a quarter note whose duration is 2 eighth notes.
Some time signatures, however, vary the number of pulses per beat. The Chase In 7 accompaniment demonstrates just such an asymmetrical time signature. Its 7/8 time signature has three beats per measure, the first two of which divide each beat into two pulses, while the third beat divides into three pulses. That is, its three beats are, respectively, a quarter note, a quarter note, and a dotted quarter note.
Rhythm Beat Indicator
Center of Melody Palette: The central blinking dot represents the Rhythm Beat; it blinks the underlying beat of the selected accompaniment, regardless of whether the accompaniment is currently playing. If the Rhythm Lock mode is set to Always Locked, the central dot will continue to blink on the established beat, even when the accompaniment is not playing.
Center of Melody Palette: The beginning of each Measure is indicated by four blinking dots forming a square around the Rhythm Beat dot. All five dots blink on the first beat of a measure.
For smaller Melody Palette array sizes, the number and layout of Rhythm Beat and Measure dots may differ from this, but their roles should be apparent.
Bottom left corner of screen: Tap the Options icon (three horizontal lines) to cause a control panel to slide up with Accompaniments, Group Play, Scales & Tuning, App Settings and Cancel. Tap your selection to open a screen offering controls for that group of Options. See below for help on each Options topic. Tap Cancel to close the control panel without making any changes.
- Select an Accompaniment File, making that set of musical textures available to play.
- Set whether the changing of accompaniments will be manual or automatic.
- Set the number of cycles to complete before automatically changing.
- Set whether the order in which accompaniments are automatically played will be random or as listed.
Options→Accompaniments: Tap the arrow to open a menu showing the Accompaniment Files (sets of accompaniments) available on this device. Tap the name of an Accompaniment File and then tap Apply to replace the current set of accompaniments with the selected one. Tap More in the upper right corner of the screen to (in the future) go to the online store where you can purchase additional Accompaniment Files. Bandojo currently comes with five Accompaniment Files:
- Bandojo: Rich musical textures in a variety of scales and time signatures, suitable as ambient music or for using as an accompaniment to melodies you play on the Melody Palette.
- Classy: Simpler musical textures suitable for music education, playing melodies and singing along. These include 16 simple textures, which cover each combination of four basic time signatures (2/4, 3/4, 4/4, 6/8) with four popular scales (Major, Minor, Dorian, Mixolydian), plus four supplemental textures.
- Folk.West.1: Musical textures in a variety of scales and time signatures, offered as accompaniments to the collection of 30+ songs, primarily folk songs and Christmas carols, for which PanMuse provides Song Sheets.
- Serenity: Tranquil musical textures in a variety of scales and time signatures, suitable for inducing calmness, focus and serenity, either as ambient music or by using as an accompaniment.
- a.la.Modes: Musical textures in a variety of Western scales (modes) and time signatures, suitable for studying and exploring modes within Western classical music, either as part of a Music Theory class or on one’s own. The exemplified scales (modes) are Lydian, Major, Mixolydian, Dorian, Minor, Phrygian, and Locrian.
Auto Play On Launch
Options→Accompaniments: Tap switch to Off for manual-only start of accompaniments on the next launch of Bandojo.
Auto Change Accompaniment
Options→Accompaniments: Tap the minus or plus to change the number of cycles completed before the accompaniment changes to a new accompaniment. Tap switch to Off for manual-only change of accompaniments.
Play Order of Accompaniments
Options→Accompaniments: Tap to select the order in which accompaniments from the currently loaded set will be played.
- Random Change = plays all in random order (surprise!)
- Sequential Change = plays all from first to last as listed in Accompaniments menu
Options→Group Play: Tap one of the three player modes.
- Solo: playing alone—no network connection to others
- Maestro: leader of networked collaborators
- Member: collaborator networked to Maestro
Set up a Group Play session:
- Connect all computer devices running Bandojo to the same local area network (LAN) or wireless area network (WAN). Ideally, the Maestro device will be connected directly to the network router through an Ethernet cable.
- On the host device, set the player mode to Maestro and the Group ID to a number (1-20) not already in use by another Bandojo group on the same network.
- On all remote devices, set the player mode to Member and the Group ID to the same number as the Maestro. All devices of a group must use the same Group ID.
- (Only in Maestro mode) Allow Band Members to set accompaniments: If this is switched to Off (slide button to left), only the Maestro will be able to choose or change accompaniments during play. Switch to On (slide to right/green) to allow Members also to set accompaniments.
- Select Apply.
Member devices do not produce any sound. The Maestro’s device will emit the combined audio for the group. The group will share one accompaniment, which will provide the beat for Rhythm Lock, allowing all ensemble members to synchronize rhythms. The extent of their usage of Rhythm Lock is independent of each other; each member sets their own Rhythm Lock mode and granularity. The group will also share a single scale, which is determined by the accompaniment, and a single tonic (key), which players can change using the Tonic Controller.
Laptop and desktop computers (running BandojoPlus) make better Maestros. They have more powerful audio synthesis, richer sound, and a larger set of instruments, and can support Bandojo groups of up to around 16. iPhones and iPads (running Bandojo) make great Members. They can also act as Maestro, but the size of group they can successfully host will be limited (probably to 2 or 3) by the computational demands of the selected accompaniment and instruments relative to the device’s computing power.
Using Maestro/Member mode, you can use your iOS device running Bandojo as an extra controller for BandojoPlus on your laptop or desktop. It’s the best of both worlds—the superior audio quality and greater variety of instruments of BandojoPlus on a laptop or desktop combined with the touchscreen interface of an iPad or iPhone running Bandojo.
Scales & Tuning
Options→Scales & Tuning:
- Display/hide Solfege button labels on the Melody Palette.
- Set the displayed Solfege type.
- Set the scale tuning to be equal tempered or not.
- Set the mapping mode of the Melody Palette.
Options→Scales & Tuning: Tap the desired type of button labels to be displayed.
- Modal Movable-Do Solfege: Do Re Mi
- Modal Movable-La (Kodaly) Solfege: La Ti Do
- Indian Solfege: Sa Re Ga
- Byzantine Solfege: Ni Pa Vu (Νι Πα Βου)
- Scale Degree Numbers: 1 2 3
- Pitch Names: C D E
Options→Scales & Tuning: Tap Off to hide Solfege button labels. Tap Follow to display Solfege for the last note played; it will appear below the Melody Palette. Tap Full to display Solfege labels on the buttons of the Melody Palette. Then tap Done to close the screen.
The button colors correspond to the Solfege syllables and scale degree numbers as follows. (The La Ti Do Kodaly Solfege follows a different pattern that depends on the scale mode.)
The number of dots above or below a button’s label indicates the octave register, that is, how many octaves that button’s pitch is shifted up or down, respectively, from the middle register. Note: The Pitch Names will change whenever the tonic changes, while the other types of Solfege will not.
Equal Tempered Tuning Only
Options→Scales & Tuning: Tap switch to On to force the tuning to be equal tempered, or to Off to have the tuning change with accompaniment to be one selected by the composer as appropriate to the culture of that accompaniment’s scale. Click here for more about Tunings.
Use equal-tempered tuning when playing Bandojo along with recordings or live performances that use Western instruments, which are typically tuned to be equal tempered. We recommend switching it off in all other circumstances.
Mapping Mode of Melody Palette (“Harmony”)
Options→Scales & Tuning: Tap the icon for one of the three Melody Palette mapping modes.
The leftmost is Melody Only, which is the default mode. It causes the Melody Palette buttons to play melodic notes, as described above in the Melody Palette section.
The middle option of Chord Root Only causes the Melody Palette buttons to set accompaniment’s chord root, allowing the Melody Palette to be repurposed as a convenient controller for chord progressions. This could be especially useful if the iPhone was being used in Member mode within a Group Play-facilitated ensemble.
The rightmost option of Melody+Chord Root causes the Melody Palette buttons to both play a melody note and set the chord root to the scale degree of that note. This works especially well when the melody instrument provides a bass line by, for example, using a Finger Bass, Taisho Koto, Electric Grand, or French Horn with Melody Range set to Low or Sub.
All of these modes can be used in conjunction with the square Harmony buttons. The current chord root is indicated by highlighting of the associated Harmony button, regardless of whether it was set by tapping a Harmony button, tapping a Melody Palette button, or otherwise.
Note: The switch to the left of the label “Harmony” is nonfunctional. It is residue from Bandojo’s iPad interface and a known bug for the iPhone version.
- Set the overall color scheme.
- Set the shape or skin (image set) of the Melody Palette buttons.
- Set the number of columns and rows in the Melody Palette’s button grid.
- Restore all app settings to their default values.
Options→App Settings: Tap on Light to set the color scheme to be pastels on white, or on Dark to set it to jewel tones on black. When the Skin is set to Plain, the button shape will be circles for the Light setting and octagons for Dark.
Options→App Settings: Tap switch to On to shift the button colors to brighter tones.
Options→App Settings: Tap on the desired grid array size for the Melody Palette, indicated as number of columns x number of rows. The available choices are 8 x 6, 7 x 5, 5 x 4, or 3 x 3. The fewer the buttons, the larger they will be. Note: The Harmony buttons will be hidden for the smaller array sizes.
Options→App Settings: Tap the arrow to open a menu showing the Skins (sets of button images) available on this device. Tap the name of a Skin and then tap App Settings to replace the current set of Melody Palette button images. In the future, you will be able to tap More in the upper right corner of the screen to go to the online store where you can purchase additional Skins. The default “Plain” Skin causes pastel circles on a white background to be displayed when the Appearance is set to Light, and jewel-tone octagons on black to be displayed when the Appearance is set to Dark. Other Skins that come with Bandojo are “Monsters” and “Shapes”.
Options→App Settings: Tap on “Tap to Reset Application to Factory Settings” to restore all settings to their default values.
Bottom right corner of screen: Tap the Music Settings icon (a pair of gears) to cause a control panel to slide up with Tempo, Melody Range, Pitch Map, Emphasis, Rhythm Lock, and Done. Change values of the music settings as described below. Tap Done to close the control panel.
Music Settings→Tempo: Tap and drag the Tempo Slider to the right to speed up the accompaniment, left to slow it down. The vertical line at the center of the Tempo Slider marks the original tempo (which differs among accompaniments).
Music Settings→Melody Range: Tap the images indicating Sub, Low, Medium or High on the Melody Range selector to shift the range of the Melody Palette. Sub is indicated by a bass clef with an 8 below it, Low by a bass clef, Medium by a treble clef, and High by a treble clef with an 8 above it. High shifts the Melody Palette up one octave from the Medium setting. Low shifts it down one octave, while Sub shifts it down two octaves. When Solfege Display is set to Full, the number of dots above or below a button’s label indicates the octave register, that is, how many octaves that button’s pitch is shifted up or down, respectively, from the middle register.
Examples of use: Flute sounds most realistic at High, Viola mimics a violin when set to High or a contrabass when set to Low, and Distortion Guitar is gnarliest set to Low or Sub.
Music Settings→Melody Pitch Map: Tap an image on the Pitch Map selector to change the number of scale steps (the interval) between vertically adjacent buttons on the Melody Palette.
Thirds (left): Move vertically to play consecutive thirds (“skipping” one note in the scale). Move diagonally from bottom right to top left to play a scale, that is, to play consecutive seconds. Move diagonally from bottom left to top right to play consecutive fourths (“skipping” two notes).
Fourths (right): Move vertically to play consecutive fourths (“skipping” two notes in the scale). Move diagonally from bottom right to top left to play consecutive thirds (“skipping” one note). Move diagonally from bottom left to top right to play consecutive fifths (“skipping” three notes).
The bottom row of the Melody Palette is not affected by changing the Pitch Map interval.
Go to Options→Scales & Tuning, and set the Solfege Display to Full to see the mapping of buttons to scale notes. Set the Solfege Type to Scale Degree Numbers (“1 2 3”) to easily see the intervals between buttons.
Music Settings→Emphasis: Tap and drag the Emphasis Slider to the right to make the melody instrument louder, left to make it quieter. In Group Play, this slider affects only the melody of the group member who controls it. This allows separate volume control of each group member’s melody.
Note: The whole story about emphasis is more subtle. The volume change is not guaranteed to be uniform across the frequency spectrum, but the particular effect varies among instruments.
Music Settings→Rhythm Lock: Tap one of the images for Rhythm Lock modes of Always Free, Always Locked, or Locked When Accompaniment On to select the circumstances when Rhythm Lock will be active. These will be, respectively, never, always, or only when the accompaniment is playing. When Rhythm Lock is on, notes played on the Melody Palette are forced to align with beats, pulses, and subdivisions of the pulse, and to synchronize with other Bandojo players in Group Play.
Tap one of the images showing musical notes to set the Rhythm Lock granularity. Selecting the quarter note (the leftmost image) will snap the playing of notes to beat boundaries. The eighth note (one flag) will cause snapping to the next pulse, the sixteenth note (two flags) to the next half pulse, and the thirty-second note (three flags) to the next quarter pulse. The eighth-note triplet (one beam connecting three notes) and the sixteenth-note triplet (two beams connecting three notes) will cause snapping to boundaries of triples superimposed over duples.
When Rhythm Lock is on, there may be a delay before a note sounds if it does not rhythmically align with a boundary at your chosen granularity. To reduce delays, try tapping a finer granularity (farther right). To play freely, set the Rhythm Lock mode to Always Free (the leftmost image).
Test drive Rhythm Lock: Slow down the tempo, tap the quarter note (the leftmost image) on the rhythm subdivision bar, and slide a finger rapidly and continuously around the Melody Palette. The delay in the sounding of played notes to synchronize with the Rhythm Beat should be apparent.
Bandojo provides two visual cues for the start of beats and measures: the blinking of the dots near the center of the Melody Palette (known as the Rhythm Beat Indicator and Measure Indicator), and the changing values of the Cycle:Measure:Beat label to the left of the Accompaniment Progress Indicator, which appears above the Melody Palette when an accompaniment is playing.
Right side of screen: Tap on the Instruments List icon (a violin) to open a menu of the available musical instruments, then tap on your selection. It will become the instrument with which melodies are played on the Melody Palette. Scroll for additional instruments. Most are melodic instruments whose pitch is determined by which button on the Melody Palette is played, where the mapping to scale degree and octave register is controlled by the Melody Range and the Pitch Map as described previously. (The further mapping from these to pitch is determined by the current scale, tuning and tonic.)
Bandojo provides two non-melodic instruments, which are exceptions to this behavior:
- Power Drums: a set of percussion instruments
- SFX Kit: a set of sound effects
For these, each button plays a different percussion instrument or sound effect, as indicated by the button’s text label. This mapping is independent of the Melody Range and Pitch Map settings.
Upper right side of screen: Tap the Tonic note name to cause a control panel to slide out containing a Tonic Selector and an Auto Change Tonic switch.
The Tonic Selector has two rows of numbers above and below the letter name of the current tonic (key) followed by the name of the current scale (e.g., “F Dorian”, “B Major”). Tap a number to raise or lower the tonic by the corresponding number of half steps. The letter name of the key, appearing in blue in the center, will change accordingly, while the button-to-pitch mapping of the Melody Palette will transpose to match the new key. If Solfege Display is set to Full and Solfege Type is set to Pitch Names, the labels of the Melody Palette buttons will also immediately change to reflect the new mapping.
Tap the Auto Change Tonic switch to Off to enable manual-only change of the tonic of the selected accompaniment. Tap switch to On to have the tonic automatically change at the start of each texture cycle. (The sequence of tonics is fixed for a particular musical texture, but varies among textures due to aesthetic considerations by the composer.)
To hide the Tonic Controller, tap on either the tonic/scale string on the Controller panel or the tonic note name on the right side of the main screen.
Lower right side of screen (only visible when the Melody Palette button array size is 8 x 6): Tap the Harmony icon (three notes followed by a number indicating the current chord root) to replace the bottom row of the Melody Palette with a row of square Harmony buttons. Tap a Harmony button to set the chord root of the Accompaniment to the scale degree number shown on that button. The number next to the Harmony icon on the main screen will be updated. Through the Harmony buttons, control the chord progressions of the accompaniment, allowing Bandojo to be used much like an auto-harp. The Dorian Waltz accompaniment is a good choice for hearing the effect of the Harmony setting.
Note: The Harmony buttons will be hidden whenever the Melody Palette’s button array size is set to 7 x 5, 5 x 4 or 3 x 3. Setting the array size to 8 x 6 will cause the Harmony buttons to again be revealed if Harmony was already switched on.
Note: The Melody Palette can also be used to dynamically change the Accompaniment’s chord root. Go to Options→Scales & Tuning to set the Melody Palette’s Harmony mapping mode to Chord Root Only or Melody+Chord Root to do so, as described in more detail above.
Available only on BandojoPlus for desktop or laptop computer. To record the music you are playing with Bandojo on your iPhone, use the iPhone as a controller for BandojoPlus running on a Mac or PC; that is, set up a Group Play ensemble in which your iOS Bandojo is a Member and the Maestro is running BandojoPlus, then record from BandojoPlus.